<pre><pre>Irritable bowel syndrome
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Facts You Should Know About Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

Signs and symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) include gas, bloating, abdominal pain, diarrhea and constipation.

  • Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic gastrointestinal disorder.
  • IBS is not the same as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a more serious condition that causes inflammation in the digestive tract and can lead to serious complications.
  • Symptoms of IBS include
  • The cause of irritable bowel syndrome is currently unknown. It is believed to be the result of a combination of abnormal movements of the gastrointestinal tract, increased awareness of bodily functions and disruption of communication between the brain and gastrointestinal tract.
  • IBS-D is irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea. The most common symptoms with IBS-D are:
  • IBS-C is irritable bowel syndrome with constipation. The most common symptoms with IBS-C are:
    • Hard, lumpy stools
    • Tension during bowel movements
    • Irregular stools
  • There is a new blood test that can help doctors diagnose some types of irritable bowel syndrome.
  • IBS is diagnosed by exclusion, which means that a doctor first considers other alternatives and conducts tests to rule out other medical problems.
  • Home remedies for IBS include avoiding certain foods that “aggravate” or aggravate diarrhea, bloating, and gas such as cruciferous vegetables (for example, cauliflower, wasabi, kale, and broccoli) and legumes (for example, black beans, edamame, soy nuts) . and broad beans).
  • Other home remedies to relieve IBS symptoms include adding fiber to the diet, drinking plenty of water, avoiding sodas, eating smaller meals, and eating more low-fat and high-carb foods.
  • There is currently no known cure for IBS. Medical treatment for irritable bowel syndrome includes antispasmodics, anti-diarrheal drugs, antidepressants, laxatives, and other drugs.
  • Irritable bowel syndrome is a chronic (long-term) disease and the symptoms usually return.
  • Irritable bowel syndrome is also called spastic colon, functional bowel disease and mucosal inflammation. IBS is not a true ‘colitis’. The term colitis refers to another group of conditions such as ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, microscopic colitis and ischemic colitis. These are other types of bowel disease.

What are the signs and symptoms of IBS?

IBS affects every person differently. The hallmark of IBS in adults and children is abdominal discomfort or pain. The following signs and symptoms are also common:

  • Abdominal cramps and pain that are relieved with bowel movements
  • Alternating periods of diarrhea and constipation
    • Those who usually have diarrhea as a symptom are considered to have it IBS with diarrhea (IBS-D)characterized by a sudden urge to have a bowel movement, along with loose stools, frequent bowel movements, abdominal pain and discomfort, gas and the feeling of not being able to completely empty the bowels. In severe cases of IBS-D, individuals may lose control of their bowels.
    • Those who usually have constipation as a symptom are considered to have it IBS with constipation (IBS-C)characterized by passing hard, lumpy stools, straining during bowel movements, and irregular stools
  • Change in stool frequency or consistency
  • Flatulence (flatulence)
  • Pass mucus from the rectum
  • Bloated feeling
  • Stuffed belly
  • Loss of appetite

While not a symptom of IBS, indigestion affects up to 70% of people with IBS.

The following are NOT signs and symptoms or features of IBS (but should still be brought to the attention of a healthcare professional, as they may be signs and symptoms of other conditions):

Who gets IBS?

Risk factors for IBS include:

  • Abnormal (too fast or slow or too strong) movements of the large intestine and small intestine
  • Hypersensitivity to pain caused by gas or full intestines
  • A viral or bacterial infection of the stomach and intestines (gastroenteritis)
  • Bacterial overgrowth in the small intestine (SIBO)
  • Reproductive hormones or neurotransmitters can be out of balance in people with IBS.

Anxiety or depression can accompany IBS, although it is not a direct cause of IBS.

Are IBS and IBD the same gut condition?

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are not the same condition. Technically, IBS is not a disease, but rather a functional disorder (abnormal function of the bowels) that results in a group of symptoms.

Irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease can have similar symptoms, but IBS is less severe than IBD. IBS does not cause inflammation, intestinal bleeding, rectal bleeding, ulcers, permanent damage to the gut, or complications that can occur with IBD.

When should you seek medical care for IBS?

If a person has any of the symptoms of IBS as discussed previously, or if a person with known IBS has unusual symptoms, a doctor should be consulted. Go to a hospital’s emergency department if the problems are severe and / or sudden.

What tests diagnose IBS?

IBS can be difficult to diagnose. IBS is called a diagnosis of exclusion, which means that a doctor first considers many other alternatives and performs tests to rule out other medical problems. Some of these tests may include laboratory tests, imaging studies (such as a CT scan or X-rays of the small intestine) and endoscopy and / or colonoscopy. An endoscopy is a procedure in which a flexible tube with a small camera is inserted at one end into the gastrointestinal tract while the patient is being consciously sedated. A combination of history, physical exam, and selected tests are used to help diagnose irritable bowel syndrome.

Two relatively new blood tests with antibodies can help doctors and other medical specialists diagnose irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea or IBS-D, and irritable bowel syndrome mixed, or IBS-M (irritable bowel syndrome with constipation and diarrhea).

These new blood tests are for anti-CdtB and anti-vinculin antibodies, which researchers think develop in some patients after acute gastroenteritis caused by various common types of bacteria. The overgrowth of these bacteria in the intestines can cause an immune attack on the patient’s own intestinal tissue (autoimmunity) with the resulting inflammation and damage to the tissues, which cause IBS symptoms.

This test can also help doctors distinguish between IBS and IBD (inflammatory bowel disease), a very different type of bowel disease that may involve the immune system.

The test appears to be helpful in diagnosing patients with irritable bowel syndrome with IBS-D diarrhea, but not for IBS with constipation (IBS-C). The tests seem to be specific, and if the antibodies are present, the patient is likely to have IBS. However, the tests are insensitive, meaning that if the antibodies are not present, the patient may still have IBS. Thus, the tests may identify only a subset of individuals with IBS, those with post-infectious IBS. The FDA has not approved irritable bowel syndrome, nor have they undergone rigorous scientific research into its effectiveness. The test was expected to cost between $ 500 and over $ 1,000.

What natural home remedies and diet changes treat and alleviate IBS symptoms?

Most people with IBS only have occasional symptoms, and the following measures can treat or ease the symptoms during an eruption:

  • Add fiber to the diet: Fiber theoretically expands the inside of the digestive tract, reducing the chance of spasms during food transfer and digestion. Fiber also promotes regular bowel movements, which helps reduce constipation. Fiber should be added gradually as it may exacerbate bloating and flatulence at first. People with IBS-D should look for foods that have more soluble fiber, the type that takes longer to digest (like the ones in oats, beans, barley, peas, apples, carrots, and citrus fruits).
  • Reduce stress and anxiety: Stress and anxiety can cause IBS – ‘flares’. Healthcare professionals can provide specific advice on how to reduce stress. The following can help reduce stress and problems related to IBS:
    • Eat balanced meals regularly.
    • Reduce caffeine intake.
    • Exercise can help reduce stress.
    • Smoking can worsen IBS symptoms, which is another good reason to quit.

Other home remedies to calm and reduce IBS symptoms include:

  • Increase fiber in the diet
  • Drink plenty of water
  • Avoid soft drinks, which can cause gas and abdominal pain
  • Eat smaller meals to reduce the incidence of cramps and diarrhea.
  • Low-fat and carbohydrate-rich meals like pasta, rice, and whole grain bread can help IBS symptoms (unless the person has celiac disease).

Irritable bowel syndrome 1

What drugs treat IBS symptoms?


Antispasmodics, such as dicyclomine (Bemote, Bentyl, Di-Spaz) and hyoscyamine (Levsin, Levbid, NuLev), are sometimes used to treat the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. Antispasmodics help slow the movements of the digestive tract and reduce the risk of spasms. They can have side effects and are not for everyone. Other treatment plans are available depending on the symptoms and condition.

Antidiarrheal medications

Anti-diarrheal drugs, such as loperamide (Imodium), a kaolin / pectin preparation (Kaopectate) and diphenoxylate / atropine (Lomotil), are sometimes used when diarrhea is an important feature of IBS. Do not take it for a long time without first consulting a doctor.


Antidepressants can be very effective in smaller doses than those commonly used to treat depression. Imipramine (Tofranil), amitriptyline (Elavil), nortriptyline (Pamelor), and desipramine (Norpramin) are some commonly used drugs that can relieve irritable bowel syndrome symptoms. Some other antidepressants are more commonly prescribed when depression and IBS coexist.

What drugs do individuals who don’t respond to IBS medications treat?

The following medications are usually reserved for patients with symptoms that do not improve with the aforementioned treatments:

  • Alosetron (Lotronex) is a limited drug that is only approved for short-term treatment of women with severe, chronic diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D) who do not respond to conventional IBS therapy. Less than 5% of people with irritable bowel syndrome have the severe form, and only a fraction of people with severe IBS have the diarrhea-predominant type. Alosetron was removed from the U.S. market, but was reintroduced with new restrictions approved by the FDA in 2002. Doctors must be registered with the pharmaceutical manufacturer to prescribe the drug. Serious and unpredictable gastrointestinal adverse reactions (including some leading to death) have been reported in association with their use after the original approval. The safety and efficacy of alosetron has not been adequately studied in men; therefore, the FDA has not approved the drug for treating IBS in men.
  • Rifaximin (Xifaxan) is an antibiotic for IBS-D that works by reducing or changing gut bacteria and can improve symptoms of bloating and diarrhea after 10 to 14 days of treatment. Some patients need to be retreated with higher doses to relieve symptoms.
  • Eluxadoline (Viberzi) is another newer medication for IBS-D that helps reduce abdominal pain and improves stool consistency in adults.
  • Linaclotide (With Linzess is a type of medicine that relieves constipation and pain in some adults with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In drug studies, people with IBS with constipation (called a subtype of IBS IBS-C) had more frequent and better bowel movements and less abdominal pain after taking daily doses of Linzess. The drug often started to work within the first few days of treatment.
  • Lubiprostone (Amitiza) is a type of laxative used to treat severe irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C) in women who are at least 18 years old. It is a capsule taken orally with food twice a day. It is used to relieve stomach pain, bloating and straining; and produce softer and more frequent bowel movements in people with chronic idiopathic constipation.
  • Tegaserod (Zelnorm) was a drug used to treat IBS, but was withdrawn from the market in 2008 due to an increased risk of heart attack, stroke, and ischemic colitis.

New drugs for IBS-D are also being developed or are in clinical trials. Those that are most promising include:

  • Serotonin synthesis inhibitors can help reduce pain and improve stool consistency
  • Ramosetron, similar to alosetron (Lotronex). This would relieve symptoms with less constipation.
  • Spherical carbon adsorbent provides relief from pain and bloating in the short term, but does not improve stool consistency.
  • Benzodiazepine receptor modulator (dextofisopam) may decrease colon motility and bowel sensitivity reactions in response to stress.
  • Peripheral k agonist (asimadoline, a kappa opioid agonist) is in clinical studies and shows reduced pain, urgency and stool frequency.

What specialties of doctors does IBS treat?

Irritable bowel syndrome may initially be diagnosed by your primary care physician, such as your primary care physician, internist or general practitioner. A gastroenterologist (a doctor who specializes in diseases of the digestive system) will usually provide further treatment. An emergency medicine specialist can be seen if you have an acute flare-up of IBS symptoms and go to a hospital emergency room.

Is there a specific diet plan for a person with IBS?

Diet and lifestyle changes are important in reducing the frequency and severity of IBS symptoms.

The first thing your doctor suggests is to keep a food diary. This will help you find foods that are causing your symptoms.

  • Limit foods that contain ingredients that can stimulate the gut and cause diarrhea, such as:
  • Some vegetables (cauliflower, broccoli, cabbage, Brussels sprouts) and legumes (beans) can worsen bloating and flatulence and should be avoided.
  • A high-fiber diet can reduce symptoms of constipation.
  • Drink plenty of water and avoid carbonated drinks like soda, which can cause gas and discomfort.
  • Eat smaller meals and eat slowly to reduce cramps and diarrhea.
  • Low-fat, high-carb meals like pasta, rice, and whole-wheat bread can help (unless you have celiac disease).
  • Probiotic supplements like lactobacillus acidophilus or prebiotics can help relieve IBS symptoms, including abdominal pain, bloating, and irregular bowel movements.
  • A diet low in FODMAPs (Fermentable oligosaccharides, di-saccharides, mono-saccharides and polyols), a group of short-chain carbohydrates, can help relieve IBS symptoms. Consult your physician for more information.

What foods should you avoid if you have IBS?

Whether you have IBS-D or IBS-C, there are foods to avoid that can cause symptoms.

Certain foods can make bloating and flatulence worse. Foods to avoid include cruciferous vegetables and legumes, such as:

  • Cabbage
  • Cauliflower
  • Radish
  • Horseradish
  • Watercress
  • Wasabi
  • Brussels sprouts
  • Bok choy
  • Arugula
  • Kale
  • Broccoli
  • Chinese cabbage
  • Collard turns green

Legumes can also aggravate gas and bloating, for example:

  • Black beans
  • Black Eyed Peas
  • Chickpeas (garbanzo beans)
  • Edamame
  • broad beans
  • Lentils
  • lima beans
  • Red beans
  • Soy nuts

Some foods can cause symptoms of abdominal cramps and diarrhea, including:

  • Fatty food
  • fried food
  • Coffee
  • Caffeine
  • Alcohol
  • Sorbitol (a sweetener found in many diet foods, candies and gums)
  • Fructose (naturally found in honey and some fruits and also used as a sweetener)

Eating large meals can also cause abdominal cramps and diarrhea.

What other lifestyle changes help relieve IBS symptoms?

In addition to dietary changes, there are some healthy habits that can also help reduce IBS symptoms.

  • Maintain a good physical condition to improve bowel function and reduce stress.
  • Exercise regularly.
  • Quit smoking for overall good health.
  • Avoid coffee / caffeine and gum.
  • Reducing or eliminating alcohol consumption can help.
  • Stress management can help prevent or relieve IBS symptoms.
    • Use relaxation techniques: deep breathing, visualization, yoga
    • Do things you enjoy: talk to friends, read, listen to music
    • Gut-driven hypnosis can reduce stress and anxiety
    • Biofeedback teaches you to recognize your body’s responses to stress and you can learn to slow your heart rate and relax.
  • Pain management techniques can improve tolerance to pain
  • Cognitive behavioral or psychotherapy with trained counselors

What are the complications of irritable bowel syndrome?

IBS has few related complications. IBS does not lead to rectal bleeding, colon cancer, or inflammatory bowel disease, including ulcerative colitis. Diarrhea and constipation can make hemorrhoids worse in people who already have them. When a person cuts out too much food from their diet and the diet is too limited in nutrients that can cause health problems.

The effect on a person’s quality of life is the major complication of IBS. Stress and anxiety can result from the pain and can affect a person’s daily life.

Can irritable bowel syndrome be prevented?

Follow diet and lifestyle recommendations as described above and as discussed with your doctor. Avoiding triggers is the best way to prevent IBS symptoms.

What is the prognosis for a person with IBS?

Because irritable bowel syndrome is a chronic (long-term) disease, symptoms usually return from time to time. This can be influenced by factors such as stress, diet or other environmental causes. No known treatment cures IBS. Multiple factors can play a role in exacerbating IBS, so it’s difficult to predict which triggers can make IBS worse in a particular person. Building a good relationship with a health care professional can help alleviate concerns about symptoms and allow rapid recognition of changing or worsening symptoms.